MOOCs with Books
Technology Plus Traditional Teaching for an On-line Education Revolution
Research School of Computer Science
Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
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Tom Worthington FACS CP
- IT consultant and course designer for vocational and postgraduate university courses
- Canberra ICT Educator of the Year 2010
- Adjunct Senior Lecturer at the Australian National University (ANU)
- Member of the ANU Energy Change Institute
- Fellow, Honorary Life Member and Past President of the Australian Computer Society
Tom Worthington is an IT consultant and course designer for vocational and postgraduate university courses. In 2010 he was awarded Canberra ICT Educator of the Year by the Australian Computer Society, for his work on sustainable e-learning. Tom is an Adjunct Senior Lecturer at the Australian National University. In 1999 he was elected a Fellow of the Australian Computer Society for his contribution to the development of public Internet policy and previously worked for the Australian Government. He is a Past President, Honorary Life Member, Certified Professional and a Certified Computer Professional of the society as well as a voting member of the Association for Computing Machinery and a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
- Education is moving on-line for schools, TAFEs and unis,
- Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS) are not the future,
- eBooks and Social media are the future of education,
- Also: e-Portfolios, Cloud based LMS & Portable course-ware.
MOOCs: "open" e-learning by a new name
Massive Open Online Courses ( MOOCs):
- Massive: 100,000 students, or more.
- Open: No scholastic or financial barrier to enrollment.
- On-line: Materials delivered and students interact via the Internet.
- Course: One semester, one quarter full time student load (a US course).
Massive Open Online Courses ( MOOCs) have recently been widely discussed in education forums and this is now spreading to the business and general media. These large scale courses use synchronised asynchronous e-learning and a highly structured approach which can be used as an easy introduction to e-learning.
Some characteristics of an MOOC are:
- Massive: 100,000 students or more. Australia's large university has less than 50,000 students.
- Open: No scholastic or financial barrier to enrollment. Materials may also be open educational resources.
- On-line: Materials delivered and students interact via the Internet.
- Course: Similar in size to an Australian university subject of about a 12 week semester one quarter full time student load (a US course). But does not provide a credential on completion.
Because of the large scale a relatively small teaching staff available, MOOC design emphasizes carefully prepared and tested material, active involvement by students in their learning (including helping each other, peer assessment). Current MOOCs have a linear structure of course delivery and some use conventional textbooks.
MOOCs Are Like Books
Massive Open Online Courses are similar to books:
- Massive: Books can have millions of readers.
- Open: No scholastic barrier to accessing a book and small or financial barrier (none at a public library or free eBook).
- On-line: eBooks can be delivered via the Internet.
- Course: Textbooks provide structured course content. eBooks can have video and quizzes.
MOOCs have many similarities to books, particularly text books used for courses. Like MOOCs, books scale well: a book can have millions of readers. Books are "open" in the sense that anyone who has access to a library or the small purchase price can read a book. Access is not denied to books on the basis of existing knowledge. eBooks can be delivered via the Internet and use the same web technology as used for MOOCs. Textbooks are routinely used to provide structured course content. eBooks can now include video and quizzes. Also some MOOCs use conventional paper or eBooks as part of the course.
Academics are aware of the time, cost and discipline required to produce a textbook. I suggest that they think about MOOCs in much the same way.
Software and Training for MOOCs
Implications of MOOCs for Universities
What is a MOOC?
- Massive: Systems and software need to scale to deliver materials, provide automated student support and ways for students to interact.
- Open: Wider range of students will need more help. Ways for students to find their group needed.
- On-line: Ways to support students who have limited and intermittent Internet access are required.
- Course: Will need to integrate with conventional university
programs or create a whole new on-line university system. Ways to
credential students on-line are required (edX Proctored Examinations through Pearson VUE).
ANU MOOCs for Promotion and Learning e-Learning
ANU Joined EdX in 2013
Two MOOCs in development: Astrophysics and Engaging India
- Strengthen ANU's reputation alongside Harvard, MIT and Berkeley
- Allow students to try an ANU course
- Learn to develop e-learning courses for degrees
The ANU joined EDx in early 2013, with two MOOCs planned: Astrophysics and Engaging India. The ANU Vice Chancellor has made clear that there is no intention for the unviersity to abandon conventional university courses in favor of MOOCs. The MOOCs will be used to strengthen ANU's reputation alongside Harvard, MIT and Berkeley, allow students to try an ANU course. They will also allow ANU staff to gain experience with e-learning for use in ANU degree programs.
Open Universities Australia MOOCs
Open2Study: 24 free on-line courses
- Short: Four weeks long each
- Less time: 2 to 4 hours per week
- Similar in format to vocational courses from Australian TAFEs
Adapting Traditional Courses for Online Use: e-books + social media
Apply traditional synchronized asynchronous pedagogy to MOOCS:
- Books: Course content provided in a down-loadable standalone structured modules (textbook), using existing e-Book formats (HTML5, eBook IMS Content Package).
- Formative Feedback: Short tests can be used to aid learning by student (SCORM/HTML5).
- Groups: Students can be formed into groups for mutual support on-line.
The scaling problems of massive on-line learning can be addressed using traditional synchronized asynchronous pedagogy, or "MOOCs with Books". On-line courses tend to present material in small chunks which the designer decided on. These present problems for the learner in terms of context and control. They also place demands on the server and communications network performance and reliability. The format of a traditional textbook, translated to an e-Book (such as ICT Sustainability) provides a carefully structured set of materials for a course, which can be used off-line. Existing e-Book formats can be used (HTML5, eBook IMS Content Package).
Formative Feedback and much of the interaction for the course can also be provided off-line using existing formats (SCORM/HTML5). Plug-ins and upgrades can be provided for existing LMS software, such as Moodle (and e-portfolios such as Mahara), to allow modules to be downloaded and used offline, with students checking back in later with their progress. This will greatly reduce the loads placed on these systems, allowing for millions of students. Software for large scale e-learning can be quickly developed by using existing e-learning and e-book standards (web, Moodle Book Module, EPUB, IMS Content Package, SCORM Package). Of-line support can use the features already built into HTML5 and also features for support of mobile devices.
Open Source e-Portfolio software
The Australian Computer Society (ACS) uses e-portfolios and mentors alongside on-line postgraduate courses in the ACS Computer Professional Education Program (CPEP). The ACS also uses e-portfolios and on-line examinations for Migration Skills Assessment, on behalf of the Australian Government.
Using e-portfolios requires new skills of the student and also of the assessors. These skills will be required of professionals in the workplace and so should be included in postgraduate professional programs.
Up until now, universities have tended to use paper based forms, word processing documents, or bespoke computer applications to record student progress. An example of this evolution is the Student Practice Evaluation Form (SPEF) system. This is currently a paper based system used for recording the progress of occupational therapy students at
Australian universities. It is being implemented as a web based application.
Mahara is a free open source e-portfolio package widely used alongside Moodle. This combination can be used assist with recording progress with skills which do not fit neatly into discrete courses.
It should be noted that free open source software can be hosted on a server at the educational institution, or remotely (in "the cloud").
Computers and telecommunications (ICT) equipment is powered by electricity. If the
electricity is generated by burning fossil fuel, this releases carbon dioxide
(CO2) into the atmosphere. The CO2 is a greenhouse gas, which
traps sunlight, causing global warming.
A carbon emissions audit for the the Australian Computer Society (ACS), reported
in 2007 that
1.52% of Australian carbon emissions were attributable to computers and
telecommunications equipment. In response, the ACS, commissioned Tom Worthington to
design an e-learning course in “Green ICT Strategies”, to
train professionals in how to measure and reduce CO2 emissions. It was
first run as part of the postgraduate masters level program in February 2009.
The course was first run by ACS, in February 2009 as "Green ICT
Strategies" (later renamed "Green Technology Strategies"), with
students who are working in the ICT industry. The course was then modified slightly
are run by Tom Worthington in the graduate program of Australian National University
(ANU) from July 2009 as Green
Information Technology Strategies, COMP7310 (later renamed ICT Sustainability). A
North American version of the course was developed by Brian Stewart for Athabasca
University (Canada) in 2011 as "Green ICT
Use of Open Access Material
- Creative Commons open access license used for notes
- Learning Management System (LMS) eased distribution
- Standard institutional assessment information used
Characteristics of an Assessment Tool”, National Quality Council
The course notes used by ACS students were released under a Creative Commons open
access license. This allowed the material to be revised for use at the Australian
National University in July 2009. This version was then further revised and used for
ACS students in the next semester. This approach allowed the more rapid revision of
material than would be possible with a a conventional textbook, and with more
resources available than if the notes were just used by one institution.
As the notes evolved, it became clear that some of the administrative procedures
would need to be separated from the subject content. As an example, different
educational institutions use different assessment procedures, such as grading scales
and proportion of marks for weekly work and assignments. The use of the Learning
Management System (LMS) made it possible to remove the administrative detail from the
course notes and rely on them being available from other documents in the system.
This also removes some burden from the student to have to read through the same
standard material for each course they are undertaking: if the student can see it is
the same link from the LMS for all courses, then they need read it only once.
While it may seem useful to have requirements for an assessment to be as detailed
and specific as possible, this may not be the case. Courses which are part of an
overall program should have consistent requirements. Thus it should not be necessary
to restate the details common to all assessment in every assessment item or in every
course. This is particularly the case where a LMS is used. The National Quality
Characteristics of an Assessment Tool” include the details of how assessment is
to be recorded, which can be dealt standardised by the institution by using an
Published Course Notes
Course notes prepared in web format using Moodle:
- Separate weekly notes files consolidated into a course eBook after first
- Moodle format allowed transfer between ACS, ANU and Athabasca, using
- eBook exported from Moodle and published to web,
- Notes in Moodle most popular with students and simpler to maintain
The course was originally prepared using the web based course authoring tools in
the Moodle Learning Management System (MLS). The ACS, ANU and Athabasca University
all use the same LMS, allowing simple transfer of the course-ware between systems,
via the Moodle backup and restore function.
The first version of the course used a separate web document for each of the
twelve weekly topics in the course. However, this created a maintenance burden and
was confusing for the student. The materials were therefore all consolidated into one
web based eBook, using the Moodle “book module” function, with one chapter per topic
in the book.
The course content was exported from Moodle in HTML format and converted to
Amazon Kindle and Apple and
ePub eBook formats, as well as
PDF, a standalone web
site and a
print-on-demand paperback book. However, provision of the notes within the LMS
has proved more popular with students and simpler to maintain.
- Weekly forum contribution: 20% or 24% (varies by institution)
- Questions and answers to the online forum
- Mark and feedback each week from the tutor
- Written assignments: mid and end: 76% or 80%
- Students encouraged to produce a real report for their workplace
Assessment is by contribution to weekly forums and two written assignments: mid
semester and at the end of the course. The weekly forum questions are at the end of
each week in the course book. The assessment scheme, assignment questions and rubrics
are in the assessment appendix of the book.
The tutor is key to this form of e-learning. In the introductory posting for the
course, the tutor is required to point out where the assessment items are and explain
that the rubric are based on the generic one of the institution: weekly forum
assessment is a limited fail, pass, credit scale and the assignments the full scale.
Each week the tutor should post each question for that week as a forum topic, so the
students can post their answers in that thread of discussion.
In the weekly forum posting for the course, the tutor should provide an example of
a good posting, suggest areas for general improvement. The tutor should also remind
students how many weeks there are to the next assignment being due and that the
weekly forum questions are designed to be used in the assignments.
In the weekly individual feedback to students (via the Dialogue tool of the LMS,
not email), the tutor must provide a mark for that week and at least one example of a
good posting by the student and one suggestion for an improvement to a posting. If
there are no postings from a student for a week, they should be reminded by the tutor
that participation is compulsory and after two weeks, the program supervisor should
The assignments are marked with reference to a rubric, first determining what
grade is warranted and then the mark within the grade. Marks are not allocated to
individual aspects of the work and no summation is carried out. The examiner can use
a copy of the rubric as feedback to the student, with relevant comments indicated by
highlighting phases in the rubric (this can be done with an electronic document
returned via the LMS).
Making Students Pay Attention to Feedback with Assessment
Students pay attention to weekly tutor feedback, as it is accompanied by
A weekly mark of 2% is sufficient to have the students pay attention.
Conventional educational theory suggests that formative feedback should be
provided to students to help them improve. This should be in addition to summative
assessment for the final grading for a course. However, students pay far closer
attention to marks than they do to tutor feedback. The practice experience of this
course is that a weekly mark of 2% accompanying the feedback is sufficient to have
the students pay attention to what they are being told by the tutor.
Authentic Assessment Tasks
Gulikers, Bastians and Kirschner define an authentic assessment as:
"... one which appropriately reflects the competency that needs to be
assessed and that it represents real-life problems of the knowledge domain being
assessed and that the thinking processes that experts use to solve the problem in
real life are also required by the assessment task."
The course requires students to prepare reports typical or a workplace setting.
This contrasts with the multiple choice test used by the British Computer Society for
Certificate in Green IT. An IT practitioner is unlikely to be asked multiple
choice questions as part of their daily job.
Students are encouraged to answer all assessment items from the point of view of
their workplace (or one they are familiar with), making them more authentic to the
student. The assessment items are based on official international skills definitions
from the professional body, and so are similar to real tasks. The student as are
required to make real calculations based on a real world situation, requiring the
students to demonstrate mastery. As both the course content and assignments are based
closely on skills definitions and practice standards, there is a clear alignment
between learning outcomes, course content, assessment and professional knowledge.
Workplace skills are integrated by the student being encouraged to submit a real
report from their workplace, in consultation with their supervisor. The weekly
questions and feedback are intended to show how the assessment helps with
Future of education: MOOCs, Books and e-Learning
- Use e-learning to teach teachers how to teach on-line,
- Produce standalone structured content (textbooks, e-books),
- Provide activities and interaction between students and tutors,
- Have options of free open courses (MOOCs) as well as small closed courses.
- Supplement e-learning with face-to-face classes, where feasible and necessary.